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The giant spaces they discovered demanded giant cameras.

The camera that documented the famous meeting at Promontory Point, Utah of the tracks of the Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads on was built to accommodate glass plates 10" x 13".

It was no longer necessary to visit a studio that specialized in the tiny likeness.

Gem portraits were commonly stored in special albums with provision for a single portrait per page. Some Gems were cut to fit lockets, cufflinks, tie pins, rings and even garter clasps. Itinerant photographers frequently brought the tintype to public gatherings, such as fairs and carnivals.

Similar to daguerreotype in assembly of parts: 1-Disadvantages of ambrotypes: 1. sold for a penny or less, making photography universally available. It is sometimes confused with ambrotypes and daguerreotypes, but is easily distinguishable from them by the fact that a tintype attracts a small magnet. The earliest tintypes were on heavy metal (0.017 inches thick) that was never again used.

A very slow (up to 20 sec.) exposure, compared to 2 sec. The cost of an image at the time the process became obsolete was about 25 cents. They are stamped "Neff's Melainotype Pat 19 Feb 56" along one edge.

Wet plate negatives were often 11" x 14" up to 20" x 24" sheets of sensitized glass.

Uncased tintypes have been found with canceled tax stamps adhered to the backs. Neither the chocolate tint nor the rustic look are to be found in pre 1870 tintypes. Tiny portraits, 7/8 by 1 inch, or about the size of a small postage stamp, became available with the invention of the Wing multiplying cameras.Each eye looks at a slightly different image, and the fusion of the two images in the mind creates the illusion of depth. Sizes of stereo cards and slides: The typical mass manufactured stereo card of the period between the Civil War and WW I had a standard dimension: 3 1/2" x 7". The earliest of these cards were made on slightly curved mounts; later cards were made on slightly curved mounts that permitted greater clarity when they were seen in the stereopticon viewer.A number of photographers, working with larger field cameras, created slightly larger cards of 4" x 7", 4 3/8" x 7" and 4 1/2" x 7".The stamps date these photographs to the period of the Wartime Retail Tax Act, 1 Sept. They were popularized under the trade name Gem and the Gem Galleries offered the tiny likeness at what proved to be the lowest prices in studio history.

Gem Galleries flourished until about 1890, at which time the invention of roll film and family cameras made possible larger images at modest cost.This led to verbal skirmishes between photographers who insisted in "truth in photography". The stamp was to be canceled by requiring that the seller cancel the stamp by initializing and dating it in ink.